Centrifugal principle of centrifugal pump

by:Lianke Valve     2022-08-11
Centrifugation is actually a manifestation of the inertia of an object, such as water droplets on an umbrella. When the umbrella rotates slowly, the water droplets will rotate with the umbrella. This is because the friction between the umbrella and the water droplets acts as the centripetal force for the water droplets. But if the umbrella rotates faster, the friction force is not enough to make the water droplets move in a circular motion, then the water droplets will move away from the umbrella and move to the outer edge, just like pulling a rock with a rope to make a circular motion. If the speed is too fast, the rope will Disconnect and the stones will fly out. This is called centrifugal. The main working principle of centrifugal pump (1) The impeller is driven to rotate by the pump shaft, and does work on the fluid located between the blades. The fluid is thrown from the center of the impeller to the periphery by the centrifugal force. When the fluid reaches the periphery of the impeller, the flow velocity is very high. (2) The pump casing collects the liquid thrown from the blades, and these liquids flow in the casing along the direction of the volute-shaped channel gradually expanding, so that the kinetic energy of the fluid is converted into static pressure energy and energy loss is reduced. Therefore, the function of the pump casing is not only to collect the liquid, it is also an energy conversion device. (3) The principle of liquid suction: relying on the high-speed rotation of the impeller, the liquid in the center of the impeller is forced to be thrown away at a high speed, thereby forming a low pressure in the center of the impeller, and the liquid in the low-level tank is continuously sucked up. Air-binding phenomenon: If the centrifugal pump is filled with gas before starting, when the gas in the center of the impeller is thrown away after starting, a large enough vacuum cannot be formed there, so that the liquid in the tank cannot be sucked up. This phenomenon is called air binding. In order to prevent the occurrence of air binding, the centrifugal pump should be filled with external liquid before starting the pump. This step is called priming. In order to prevent the liquid poured into the pump casing from flowing into the low-level tank due to gravity, a check valve (bottom valve) is installed at the inlet of the pump suction pipeline; if the position of the pump is lower than the liquid level in the tank, there is no need to fill the tank when starting. Pump. (4) The guide wheel is installed on the outer periphery of the impeller, so that the liquid energy conversion efficiency in the pump is high. The guide wheel is a stationary bladed ring located on the outer circumference of the impeller. The bending direction of the blade is opposite to the bending direction of the impeller blade, and its bending angle is just adapted to the direction of the liquid flowing out of the impeller, guiding the liquid to change direction smoothly in the pump casing channel, so as to minimize the energy loss, and the dynamic pressure can be converted into The efficiency of static pressure energy is high. (5) The balance hole on the rear cover plate eliminates the axial thrust. The pressure of the liquid leaving the periphery of the impeller is already high, and part of it will seep to the back side of the impeller rear cover, while the liquid inlet on the front side of the impeller is low pressure, thus generating an axial thrust that pushes the impeller to the pump inlet side. This is easy to cause wear at the contact between the impeller and the pump casing, and even vibration in severe cases. The balance hole allows a part of the high-pressure liquid to leak to the low-pressure area, reducing the pressure difference between the front and rear of the impeller. However, this also reduces the efficiency of the pump. (6) The shaft sealing device ensures the normal and efficient operation of the centrifugal pump. When the centrifugal pump is working, the pump shaft rotates and the casing does not move. If the annular gap between them is not sealed or poorly sealed, the outside air will penetrate into the low pressure area in the center of the impeller, which will reduce the flow and efficiency of the pump. In severe cases, the flow is zero - air binding. Typically, a mechanical seal or packing seal can be used to seal between the shaft and the housing.
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